gral21 09   The Graz Lagrangian (GRAL) system is a Lagrangian particle model with a free Graphic User Interface (GUI) available in both Linux and Windows and it is well know among odour modellers. Now the developers have released the version 21.09 with plenty of bug fixes and new features.

    One more year, the GRAL GRAMM team have been working on changes and modifications in the code, and correcting bugs. This is the list of new features and bugs corrected for GRAL, GRAMM and the Graphic User Interface (GUI) for this release.

   Cattle farms consist of various spatially extended odour-emitting areas representing ground-level diffuse odour sources. These include loose-housing systems with outdoor exercise areas, the supplied diet, and storage areas for silage, slurry and solid manure. The aim of this study was to identify relevant odour sources on cattle farms and to compare the odour concentrations of individual sources, bearing in mind descriptive parameters.   

   Compared with hay and sugar beet pulp (mean: <750 OUE m−3), higher odour concentrations resulted from the cut surface of grass silage (3990 OUE m−3) and maize silage (1690 OUE m−3) in the stores as well as from the mixed ration with silage on the feed table (2955 OUE m−3). Samples from the solid floors in the cattle housing (feeding and cubicle access aisles, outdoor exercise area) and from solid manure stores showed higher odour concentrations (1485 resp. 1845 OUE m-3) than littered areas such as cubicles and deep-bedded areas (<500 OUE m−3).

37 001   Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), commonly found in the atmosphere, are odorous compounds with negative effects on human and environment. VOCs and odours emitted from industrial sources have been demonstrated as hazardous and annoying compounds which may cause negative effects on humans and environment.

   The control of these compounds is therefore a key action by the plant managers in order to avoid complaints and negative impacts. In this study, microalgae and bacteria were implemented in a vertical tubular photobioreactor for the biodegradation of toluene, used as model VOC. Chlorella vulgaris strain was chosen as photosynthetic platform due to their high adaptability to adverse environmental conditions.

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